In large bowl, add beans and enough water to cover beans by 3”. Cover bowl and transfer to refrigerator to soak overnight (about 12 hours).
Drain beans, discarding soaking liquid, and transfer to large, heavy pot. Add garlic cloves and enough water to cover beans by about 2”. Set pot over medium-high heat and bring water to boil. Reduce heat to medium low. Simmer, uncovered, until beans are just tender, about 1 hour, adding hot water in 1 cup measures if beans become dry. Add Adobo and continue to simmer for 10 minutes.
Remove pot from the heat, drain and cool, reserving cooking liquid. Discard garlic.
Heat oil in large skillet over medium- high heat. Add onions; cook, stirring occasionally, until onions are translucent, about 5 minutes. Add beans and continue to cook, stirring constantly, about 5 minutes.
Add cooked rice and ½ cup of cooking liquid to skillet. Continue to cook, stirring constantly, until liquid is absorbed and rice and beans are heated through, about 5 minutes more. Serve immediately.