Heat oven to 350°F with racks in bottom and upper thirds. Line 16 cups of standard muffin tin with paper or foil cupcake liners; set aside. In bowl of food processer, puree black beans and sour cream until smooth, about 30 seconds; set aside. Meanwhile, sift together flour, baking powder and baking soda; set aside.
In bowl of standing mixer fitted with paddle attachment (or in mixing bowl using hand mixer), beat together butter, sugar, grated ginger and lime zest until light and smooth, about 5 minutes. Add eggs and vanilla, scraping down any batter that clings to sides of bowl with spatula, until well combined, about 3 minutes. Add reserved flour mixture, mixing and scraping until well incorporated. Remove mixer from bowl. Using spatula, fold in reserved black bean-sour cream mixture until thoroughly combined.
Evenly divide batter among prepared muffin tins, filling each cup three-quarters full. Bake, rotating halfway through, until tops are firm to the touch and a thin knife inserted in centers comes out clean, 20-23 minutes. Transfer tins to cooling racks to cool cupcakes completely before removing from tins.
Meanwhile, in bowl of standing mixer fitted with balloon whisk attachment (or in mixing bowl using hand mixer), beat together cream cheese, butter, sugar, lime zest, vanilla extract and salt until light and fluffy, about 6 minutes. Add the guava jelly and 3-4 drops of red food coloring (if desired), until mixture is light pink and jelly is well incorporated, about 1 minute more.
Using small, offset spatula, spread cupcakes with frosting. Or, transfer frosting to pastry bag fitted with ½” plain tip. Pipe frosting onto each cupcake in spiral pattern, starting at edges and ending with peak in the center.