Heat butter in large, heavy pot over medium-high heat until melted and foaming. Add onions to pot. Cook, stirring occasionally, until onions are translucent, about 10 minutes. Add flour, chili powder, garlic and cumin to pot. Cook, stirring often, about 3 minutes more.
Whisk chicken bouillon mixture and half and half into pot. Bring broth to boil. Stir in chicken, cannellini beans, jalapeños and Adobo. Reduce heat to medium low. Simmer, stirring occasionally, until beans are warmed through and flavors come together, about 5 minutes.
To serve, ladle chili into warm bowls. Garnish with sour cream and cilantro.